International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction

Published by: Kowsar

An Analytical Study on the Common Type of Smokeless Tobacco Available in the Iranian Market

Leila Farhadmollashahi 1 , * , Meisam Noroozifar 2 , Arezoo Afroughe 3 , Elahe Sadat Hashemi 4 and Marieh Honarmand 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, IR Iran
3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Shahrood, Shahrood, IR Iran
4 Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: December 01, 2014, 3 (4); e22133
  • Published Online: December 30, 2014
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: July 17, 2014
  • Revised: August 22, 2014
  • Accepted: August 25, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijhrba.22133

To Cite: Farhadmollashahi L, Noroozifar M, Afroughe A, Hashemi E S, Honarmand M. et al. An Analytical Study on the Common Type of Smokeless Tobacco Available in the Iranian Market, Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2014 ;3(4):e22133. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.22133.

Abstract
Copyright © 2014, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Imam SZ, Nawaz H, Sepah YJ, Pabaney AH, Ilyas M, Ghaffar S. Use of smokeless tobacco among groups of Pakistani medical students - a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 231[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Gupta PC, Ray CS. Smokeless tobacco and health in India and South Asia. Respirology. 2003; 8(4): 419-31[PubMed]
  • 3. Borgerding MF, Bodnar JA, Curtin GM, Swauger JE. The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012; 64(3): 367-87[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Rodu B, Jansson C. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinants. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2004; 15(5): 252-63[PubMed]
  • 5. Hoffmann D, Djordjevic MV. Chemical composition and carcinogenicity of smokeless tobacco. Adv Dent Res. 1997; 11(3): 322-9[PubMed]
  • 6. Hoffmann D, Brunnemann KD, Prokopczyk B, Djordjevic MV. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines and Areca-derived N-nitrosamines: chemistry, biochemistry, carcinogenicity, and relevance to humans. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1994; 41(1): 1-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Balbo S, James-Yi S, Johnson CS, O'Sullivan MG, Stepanov I, Wang M, et al. (S)-N'-Nitrosonornicotine, a constituent of smokeless tobacco, is a powerful oral cavity carcinogen in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(9): 2178-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Rickert WS, Joza PJ, Trivedi AH, Momin RA, Wagstaff WG, Lauterbach JH. Chemical and toxicological characterization of commercial smokeless tobacco products available on the Canadian market. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009; 53(2): 121-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Stepanov I, Hecht SS, Ramakrishnan S, Gupta PC. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in smokeless tobacco products marketed in India. Int J Cancer. 2005; 116(1): 16-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Brunnemann KD, Hoffmann D. Analytical studies on tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1991; 21(4): 235-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Burket LW. Burket's oral medicine: diagnosis and treatment. 2003;
  • 12. Adams R. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ quadropole mass spectroscopy. 2001;
  • 13. Battaglioli T, Gorini G, Costantini AS, Crosignani P, Miligi L, Nanni O, et al. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption as determinants of survival in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a population-based study. Ann Oncol. 2006; 17(8): 1283-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Smokeless tobacco and some Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamin, Monogaphs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans 2007;
  • 15. Stepanov I, Jensen J, Hatsukami D, Hecht SS. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006; 8(2): 309-13[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments