International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction

Published by: Kowsar

Methamphetamine Use Among Patients Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Iran; a Threat for Harm Reduction and Treatment Strategies: A Qualitative Study

Seyed Ramin Radfar 1 , 2 , * , Sarah J. Cousins 2 , Schwann Shariatirad 1 , 3 , Alireza Noroozi 4 and Richard A. Rawson 2
Authors Information
1 Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, Los Angeles, USA
3 Students Research Center of International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, School of Advanced Technologies of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: December 01, 2016, 5 (4); e30327
  • Published Online: April 30, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 29, 2015
  • Revised: July 11, 2015
  • Accepted: July 17, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijhrba.30327

To Cite: Radfar S R, Cousins S J, Shariatirad S, Noroozi A, Rawson R A. et al. Methamphetamine Use Among Patients Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Iran; a Threat for Harm Reduction and Treatment Strategies: A Qualitative Study, Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2016 ;5(4):e30327. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.30327.

Abstract
Copyright © 2016, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnote
References
  • 1. Perkins EL, Stennis KB, Taylor Spriggs V, Kwegyir-Afful EA, Prather A. Is Knowledge Enough? Considering HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and HIV/AIDS Knowledge with African American Women. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2014; 3(3)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Karrari P, Mehrpour O, Afshari R, Keyler D. Pattern of illicit drug use in patients referred to addiction treatment centres in Birjand, Eastern Iran. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013; 63(6): 711-6[PubMed]
  • 3. Eshrati B, Asl RT, Dell CA, Afshar P, Millson PM, Kamali M, et al. Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices. Harm Reduct J. 2008; 5: 21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Nissaramanesh B, Trace M, Roberts M. The rise of harm reduction in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, Briefing Paper. 2005;
  • 5. Razzaghi E, Nassirimanesh B, Afshar P, Ohiri K, Claeson M, Power R. HIV/AIDS harm reduction in Iran. Lancet. 2006; 368(9534): 434-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Zamani S, Radfar R, Nematollahi P, Fadaie R, Meshkati M, Mortazavi S, et al. Prevalence of HIV/HCV/HBV infections and drug-related risk behaviours amongst IDUs recruited through peer-driven sampling in Iran. Int J Drug Policy. 2010; 21(6): 493-500[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Islamic Repoblic of Iran Progress Report on Monitoring of United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV and AIDS. 2014;
  • 8. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2008;
  • 9. Atlas: substance use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region 2012. 2013;
  • 10. Chen W, Xia Y, Hong Y, Hall BJ, Ling L. Predictors of continued HIV-risk behaviors among drug users in methadone maintenance therapy program in China--a prospective study. Harm Reduct J. 2013; 10: 23[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Mattick RP, Breen C, Kimber J, Davoli M. Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; (2)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Woody GE, Bruce D, Korthuis PT, Chhatre S, Poole S, Hillhouse M, et al. HIV Risk Reduction With Buprenorphine–Naloxone or Methadone: Findings From a Randomized Trial. J Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2014; 66(3): 288-93
  • 13. el-Bassel N, Schilling RF, Turnbull JE, Su KH. Correlates of alcohol use among methadone patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993; 17(3): 681-6[PubMed]
  • 14. Hillebrand J, Marsden J, Finch E, Strang J. Excessive alcohol consumption and drinking expectations among clients in methadone maintenance. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2001; 21(3): 155-60[PubMed]
  • 15. Liebson I, Bigelow G, Flamer R. Alcoholism among methadone patients: a specific treatment method. Am J Psychiatry. 1973; 130(4): 483-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Rowan-Szal GA, Chatham LR, Simpson DD. Importance of identifying cocaine and alcohol dependent methadone clients. Am J Addict. 2000; 9(1): 38-50[PubMed]
  • 17. Raffa JD, Grebely J, Tossonian H, Wong T, Viljoen M, Khara M, et al. The impact of ongoing illicit drug use on methadone adherence in illicit drug users receiving treatment for HIV in a directly observed therapy program. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007; 89(2-3): 306-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Stitzer ML, Griffiths RR, McLellan AT, Grabowski J, Hawthorne JW. Diazepam use among methadone maintenance patients: patterns and dosages. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1981; 8(3): 189-99[PubMed]
  • 19. Bryan AD, Fisher JD, Fisher WA, Murray DM. Understanding condom use among heroin addicts in methadone maintenance using the information-motivation-behavioral skills model. Subst Use Misuse. 2000; 35(4): 451-71[PubMed]
  • 20. Johnson S, MacDonald SF, Cheverie M, Myrick C, Fischer B. Prevalence and trends of non-medical opioid and other drug use histories among federal correctional inmates in methadone maintenance treatment in Canada. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012; 124(1-2): 172-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Alam Mehrjerdi Z. Crystal in Iran: methamphetamine or heroin kerack. Daru. 2013; 21(1): 22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Shariatirad S, Maarefvand M, Ekhtiari H. Emergence of a methamphetamine crisis in Iran. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2013; 32(2): 223-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. United nations office on drugs and crime. 2009;
  • 24. United nations publication 2007;
  • 25. United Nations publication 2012;
  • 26. United nations publication 2013;
  • 27. Radfar SR, Noroozi A, Tayeri K, Motavalian A, Nematollahi P, Mohsenifar S. Study on Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Injecting Drug Users in Tehran and 5 Major Cities of Iran. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol. 2014; 3: 20
  • 28. Methamphetamine Use and Risk for HIV/AIDS. 2007;
  • 29. Gonzales R, Mooney L, Rawson RA. The methamphetamine problem in the United States. Annu Rev Public Health. 2010; 31: 385-98[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Alam Mehrjerdi Z, Abarashi Z, Mansoori S, Deylamizadeh A, Salehi Fadardi J, Noroozi A, et al. Methamphetamine use among Iranian heroin kerack-dependent women: implications for treatment. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2013; 2(1): 15-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Shariatirad S, Maarefvand M, Ekhtiari H. Methamphetamine use and methadone maintenance treatment: an emerging problem in the drug addiction treatment network in Iran. Int J Drug Policy. 2013; 24(6)-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Bernard HR. Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. 2011;
  • 33. Shedlin MG, Schreiber JM. Using focus groups in drug abuse and HIV/AIDS research. NIDA Res Monogr. 1995; 157: 136-55[PubMed]
  • 34. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction in opioid treatment programs. 2005;
  • 35. Alves P, Winstock A. Patients' knowledge about treatment for opiate dependence. Psychiatrist. 2011; 35(12): 448-53[DOI]
  • 36. Xia Y, Zhang D, Li X, Chen W, He Q, Jahn HJ, et al. Sexual dysfunction during methadone maintenance treatment and its influence on patient's life and treatment: a qualitative study in South China. Psychol Health Med. 2013; 18(3): 321-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Brown RT, Zueldorff M. Opioid substitution with methadone and buprenorphine: sexual dysfunction as a side effect of therapy. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl. 2007; 9(1): 35-44
  • 38. Bewick BM, Bell D, Crosby S, Edlin B, Keenan S, Marshall K, et al. Promoting improvements in public health: Using a Social Norms Approach to reduce use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. Drugs: Educ Prevent Policy. 2013; 20(4): 322-30
  • 39. McGovern MP, Carroll KM. Evidence-based practices for substance use disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003; 26(4): 991-1010[DOI]
  • 40. Sussman S. A Lifespan Developmental-Stage Approach to Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. ISRN Addict. 2013; 2013: 745783[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Parent N, Fortin F. A randomized, controlled trial of vicarious experience through peer support for male first-time cardiac surgery patients: impact on anxiety, self-efficacy expectation, and self-reported activity. Heart Lung. 2000; 29(6): 389-400[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Pearson CR, Micek MA, Simoni JM, Hoff PD, Matediana E, Martin DP, et al. Randomized control trial of peer-delivered, modified directly observed therapy for HAART in Mozambique. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007; 46(2): 238-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Taleghani F, Babazadeh S, Mosavi S, Tavazohi H. The effects of peer support group on promoting quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2012; 17(2 Suppl 1)-30[PubMed]
  • 44. Wilson W, Pratt C. The impact of diabetes education and peer support upon weight and glycemic control of elderly persons with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Am J Public Health. 1987; 77(5): 634-5[PubMed]
  • 45. Peirce JM, Petry NM, Stitzer ML, Blaine J, Kellogg S, Satterfield F, et al. Effects of lower-cost incentives on stimulant abstinence in methadone maintenance treatment: a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006; 63(2): 201-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Drug Testing: A White Paper of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). 2013;
  • 47. Booth RE, Corsi KF, Mikulich-Gilbertson SK. Factors associated with methadone maintenance treatment retention among street-recruited injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004; 74(2): 177-85[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. DeMaria PJ, Sterling R, Weinstein SP. The effect of stimulant and sedative use on treatment outcome of patients admitted to methadone maintenance treatment. Am J Addict. 2000; 9(2): 145-53[PubMed]
  • 49. Torrens M, Castillo C, Perez-Sola V. Retention in a low-threshold methadone maintenance program. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1996; 41(1): 55-9[PubMed]
  • 50. Frosch D, Shoptaw S, Huber A, Rawson RA, Ling W. Sexual HIV risk among gay and bisexual male methamphetamine abusers. J Substance Abuse Treat. 1996; 13(6): 483-6[DOI]
  • 51. Halkitis PN, Parsons JT, Stirratt MJ. A double epidemic: crystal methamphetamine drug use in relation to HIV transmission among gay men. J Homosex. 2001; 41(2): 17-35[DOI][PubMed]
  • 52. Molitor F, Truax SR, Ruiz JD, Sun RK. Association of methamphetamine use during sex with risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection among non-injection drug users. West J Med. 1998; 168(2): 93-7[PubMed]
  • 53. Naghavi M, Abolhassani F, Pourmalek F, Lakeh M, Jafari N, Vaseghi S, et al. The burden of disease and injury in Iran 2003. Popul Health Metr. 2009; 7: 9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Atlas on substance use (2010): resources for the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders. 2010;
  • 55. Gibson DR, Flynn NM, McCarthy JJ. Effectiveness of methadone treatment in reducing HIV risk behavior and HIV seroconversion among injecting drug users. AIDS. 1999; 13(14): 1807-18[PubMed]
  • 56. Brugal MT, Domingo-Salvany A, Puig R, Barrio G, Garcia de Olalla P, de la Fuente L. Evaluating the impact of methadone maintenance programmes on mortality due to overdose and aids in a cohort of heroin users in Spain. Addiction. 2005; 100(7): 981-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 57. Rhodes T, Hedrich D. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2010;
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments