International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction

Published by: Kowsar

Nicotine Addiction and Hearing Loss in Young Subjects From Beirut, Lebanon

Elie El Zir 1 , Mounir Doumit 2 and Ramez Chahine 3 , *
Authors Information
1 El Arz Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
2 Faculty of Dentistry, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
3 Faculty of Medical Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
Article information
  • International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: December 01, 2016, 5 (4); e31522
  • Published Online: June 1, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: July 14, 2015
  • Revised: August 31, 2015
  • Accepted: September 6, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijhrba.31522

To Cite: El Zir E, Doumit M, Chahine R. Nicotine Addiction and Hearing Loss in Young Subjects From Beirut, Lebanon, Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2016 ; 5(4):e31522. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.31522.

Copyright © 2016, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Messner B, Bernhard D. Smoking and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and early atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014; 34(3): 509-15[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Mitchell P, Mok T, Barraclough H, Strizek A, Lew R, van Kooten M. Smoking history as a predictive factor of treatment response in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review. Clin Lung Cancer. 2012; 13(4): 239-51[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Starck J, Toppila E, Pyykko I. Smoking as a risk factor in sensory neural hearing loss among workers exposed to occupational noise. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999; 119(3): 302-5[PubMed]
  • 4. Tao L, Davis R, Heyer N, Yang Q, Qiu W, Zhu L, et al. Effect of cigarette smoking on noise-induced hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise in China. Noise Health. 2013; 15(62): 67-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Zhang X, Liu Y, Zhang L, Yang Z, Shao Y, Jiang C, et al. Genetic variations in protocadherin 15 and their interactions with noise exposure associated with noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese population. Environ Res. 2014; 135: 247-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Wilson LM, Avila Tang E, Chander G, Hutton HE, Odelola OA, Elf JL, et al. Impact of tobacco control interventions on smoking initiation, cessation, and prevalence: a systematic review. J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 961724[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Yamasoba T, Lin FR, Someya S, Kashio A, Sakamoto T, Kondo K. Current concepts in age-related hearing loss: epidemiology and mechanistic pathways. Hear Res. 2013; 303: 30-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Etter JF, Duc TV, Perneger TV. Validity of the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence and of the Heaviness of Smoking Index among relatively light smokers. Addiction. 1999; 94(2): 269-81[PubMed]
  • 9. Etzel RA. A review of the use of saliva cotinine as a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Prev Med. 1990; 19(2): 190-7[PubMed]
  • 10. Benowitz NL. Cotinine as a biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Epidemiol Rev. 1996; 18(2): 188-204[PubMed]
  • 11. Feyerabend C, Russell MA. A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic method for the determination of cotinine and nicotine in biological fluids. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990; 42(6): 450-2[PubMed]
  • 12. Parzynski CS, Jaszyna-Gasior M, Franken FH, Moolchan ET. Measuring nicotine intake among highly-dependent adolescent smokers: comparability of saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008; 89(2): 145-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Blackford AL, Yang G, Hernandez-Avila M, Przewozniak K, Zatonski W, Figueiredo V, et al. Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(10): 1799-804[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Figueiredo VC, Szklo M, Szklo AS, Benowitz N, Lozana JA, Casado L, et al. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2007; 41(6): 954-62[PubMed]
  • 15. Fu M, Fernandez E, Martinez-Sanchez JM, Pascual JA, Schiaffino A, Agudo A, et al. Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9: 320[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Zelman DC, Brandon TH, Jorenby DE, Baker TB. Measures of affect and nicotine dependence predict differential response to smoking cessation treatments. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992; 60(6): 943-52[PubMed]
  • 17. Barone JA, Peters JM, Garabrant DH, Bernstein L, Krebsbach R. Smoking as a risk factor in noise-induced hearing loss. J Occup Med. 1987; 29(9): 741-5[PubMed]
  • 18. Virokannas H, Anttonen H. Dose-response relationship between smoking and impairment of hearing acuity in workers exposed to noise. Scand Audiol. 1995; 24(4): 211-6[PubMed]
  • 19. Noorhassim I, Rampal KG. Multiplicative effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment. Am J Otolaryngol. 1998; 19(4): 240-3[PubMed]
  • 20. Palmer KT, Griffin MJ, Syddall HE, Coggon D. Cigarette smoking, occupational exposure to noise, and self reported hearing difficulties. Occup Environ Med. 2004; 61(4): 340-4[PubMed]
  • 21. Ferrite S, Santana V. Joint effects of smoking, noise exposure and age on hearing loss. Occup Med (Lond). 2005; 55(1): 48-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Ohgami N, Kondo T, Kato M. Effects of light smoking on extra-high-frequency auditory thresholds in young adults. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011; 27(2): 143-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Nondahl DM, Cruickshanks KJ, Dalton DS, Schubert CR, Klein BE, Klein R, et al. Serum cotinine level and incident hearing loss: a case-control study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004; 130(11): 1260-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Cruickshanks KJ, Klein R, Klein BE, Wiley TL, Nondahl DM, Tweed TS. Cigarette smoking and hearing loss: the epidemiology of hearing loss study. JAMA. 1998; 279(21): 1715-9[PubMed]
  • 25. Zhan W, Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, Klein R, Huang GH, Pankow JS, et al. Modifiable determinants of hearing impairment in adults. Prev Med. 2011; 53(4-5): 338-42[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments