Religious Commitment Inventory - 10: Psychometric Properties of the Farsi Version in Assessing Substance Abusers

AUTHORS

Sina Hafizi 1 , 2 , * , Dina Tabatabaei 2 , Amir Hossein Memari 2 , Arash Rahmani 3 , Mohammad Arbabi 4

1 School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

2 Sports Medicine Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

3 Mental Health Research Center, Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

4 Department of Psychiatry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

How to Cite: Hafizi S, Tabatabaei D, Memari A H, Rahmani A, Arbabi M. Religious Commitment Inventory - 10: Psychometric Properties of the Farsi Version in Assessing Substance Abusers, Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2017 ; 6(3):e31651. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.31651.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: 6 (3); e31651
Published Online: September 6, 2016
Article Type: Brief Report
Received: July 22, 2015
Revised: March 10, 2016
Accepted: August 21, 2016
Crossmark

Crossmark

CHEKING

READ FULL TEXT
Abstract

Background: There is growing interest in studying the impact of religion/spirituality (R/S) on mental/physical health in Iran; however, little attention has been paid to the role of R/S in addiction.

Objectives: This study aim to evaluate the reliability and construct and convergent validity of the Farsi version of the religious commitment inventory-10 (RCI-10) in a sample of substance abusers.

Patients and Methods: The original English version of RCI-10 was translated into Farsi, the official language of Iran, using standard forward-backward translation. The reliability of the Farsi version was evaluated by assessing internal consistency; convergent validity was assessed via correlations with other measures of religiosity. Principal component analysis was utilized to assess the construct validity of the measure.

Results: The Farsi version of RCI-10 had high internal consistency and satisfactory convergent validity. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution for the scale.

Conclusions: The results of this study, while preliminary, suggest that the Farsi version of the RCI-10 is a reliable and valid measure of religiosity and can be used in health research with Farsi-speaking populations.

Keywords

Behavior Addictive Religion Spirituality

Copyright © 2016, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Background

There is a growing interest regarding the role of religion/spirituality (R/S) in addiction (1). An increasing number of studies show a positive impact of religious beliefs in the prevention of addiction and the rehabilitation of substance abusers (2, 3). Population surveys show that religiosity is inversely associated with drug addiction (4, 5), and religious people are less likely to be involved in drug and alcohol abuse (6). Moreover, R/S is shown to be inversely associated with some of the risk factors of addiction such as social isolation, psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and life dissatisfaction (6, 7). In drug-addict people, R/S can reduce the negative effects of stressful life events (8) and reinforce individual’s positive feelings and motivation to maintain abstinence (3). Unsurprisingly, several well-recognized addiction recovery programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are based on R/S concepts (9).

The religious commitment inventory-10 (RCI-10), a well-known measure of religiosity based on Worthington’s religious values model (10), is widely used in health research throughout the world. In this model, the extent to which someone relies on his/her religious rituals/beliefs and applies them in daily life is referred to as religious commitment. This commitment is a major factor in determining the positive and/or negative impact religion has on people. Based on this idea, Worthington et al. (11) developed the RCI-10 to be both a brief and comprehensive measure of religious commitment. The RCI-10’s items have been extracted from previous 62-item, 20-item and 17-item versions of the scale (11).

R/S plays a major role in the everyday lives of people in Iran. There is growing interest in studying the effect of religion on mental/physical health in Iran; however, little attention has been paid to the research on R/S in addiction (12), in spite of the fact that evidence shows an increase in the prevalence of alcohol abuse and drug addiction in this country (13, 14). We think the lack of research is partially due to the fact that only a small number of religious scales have been properly validated in Farsi (15), the official language of Iran, and none have been validated for use with substance abusers.

2. Objectives

The current study was designed to address this gap in research by evaluating the reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the RCI-10 in a sample of people with drug addiction.

3. Patients and Methods

3.1. Participants

Using a convenience sample, 120 substance abusers from several rehabilitation centers in Tehran, Iran, were approached, 116 of whom agreed to participate. All of them were Muslim and fluent in Farsi. Participation was anonymous and voluntary, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects before participation.

3.2. Measures

3.2.1. Religious Commitment Inventory - 10 (RCI-10)

The RIC-10 is a well-known measure of religiosity developed by Worthington et al. (11). This scale has 10 items that are scored on a Likert scale from 1 to 5 and assess the inter- and intra-personal religious commitment of individuals. The RCI-10 has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure of religiosity, mostly in Christian populations. Using the standard forward-backward method, the original English version of the RCI-10 was translated into Farsi. Initially, two bilingual psychologists translated the English version into Farsi. A single Farsi version then was created by comparing the two translations. The resulting Farsi version was translated back into English. This subsequent English version was compared to the original English version by a physician and a psychologist, independently. Comparison of these translations showed there were no significant differences between the two versions.

3.2.2. Duke University Religion Index (DUREL)

DUREL is a brief and inclusive measure of religiosity originally developed for use in large-scale studies (16). This five-item scale measures three main dimensions of religiosity: organized religious activities (ORA), nonorganized religious activities (NORA), and intrinsic religious (IR) activities (17). In this study, we used FDUREL, a validated Farsi version of DUREL (18).

3.2.3. Brief Trust/Mistrust in God Scale (BTMGS)

The BTMGS is a short, six-item measure of religiosity in which half of the items measure trust in God and half measure mistrust in God. Items are rated on a 5-point scale. The measure was developed based on the idea that belief in God could be both positive and negative. We used a Farsi version of the BTMGS that has been validated with Muslims (19).

3.3. Statistical Analyses

Reliability of the RCI-10 was assessed using Cronbach’s α coefficient (alpha > 0.7 was considered satisfactory). Validity was assessed by two methods. Convergent validity was studied by assessing correlations between the RCI-10 total score, the FDUREL, and the BTMGS subscales. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was used to assess the construct validity of the Farsi version. We selected those factors that had eigenvalues greater than 1.0 and item loadings equal to or greater than 0.5. Data analysis was accomplished using SPSS, version 20 (IBM Corporation, Software Group, NY, USA).

4. Results

All the subjects were male and Muslims with a mean age of 34.29 years (SD = 7.95). Sixty-five of these participants did not finish high school, 44 were high school graduates, 5 had a graduate degree, and 2 did not report their education level. Cronbach’s alpha of the Farsi version was 0.85. Before the factor analysis, measures of the appropriateness of factor analysis were computed. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.84, and the Bartlett’s test of sphericity was statistically significant (χ2 = 408.01, P < 0.001), indicating that the sample was adequate and the variables were not correlated, so factor analysis could be done. Results of the PCA suggested a three-factor solution for the Farsi version of RCI-10. Factors 1, 2, and 3 had eigenvalues of 3.06, 1.96, and 1.74, which explained 30.64, 19.63, and 17.14% of the variance, respectively. Table 1 shows the factor loadings, means, and standard deviations for each item, and Cronbach’s alpha when the item was deleted. Correlations between Factor 1 and Factor 2 (r = 0.49, P <0.001), Factor 1 and Factor 3 (r = 0.46, P <0.001), and Factor 2 and Factor 3 (r = 0.45, P < 0.001) were significant.

Table 1. RCI-10 Items, Factor Loadings, Descriptive Statistics, and Cronbach’s Alpha When Items Were Deleted
ItemsFactor LoadingsMeanSDCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Factor 1Factor 2Factor 3
1. I often read books and magazines about my faith.0.070.85-0.0012.341.350.85
2. I make financial contributions to my religious organization.0.130.600.472.371.350.84
3. I spend time trying to grow in understanding of my faith.0.380.700.142.471.420.83
4. Religion is especially important to me because it answers many questions about the meaning of life.0.750.190.263.341.570.82
5. My religious beliefs lie behind my whole approach to life.0.600.380.173.101.450.83
6. I enjoy spending time with others of my religious affiliation.0.84-0.01-0.063.541.540.84
7. Religious beliefs influence all my dealings in life.0.820.160.233.101.470.82
8. It is important to me to spend periods of time in private religious thought and reflection.0.680.190.213.091.490.83
9. I enjoy working in the activities of my religious organization.0.32-0.080.823.341.520.84
10. I keep well informed about my local religious group and have some influence in its decisions.0.070.340.772.411.460.84

Table 2 presents the correlations between the RCI-10 total score, BTMGS, and FDUREL. The RCI-10 was significantly correlated with the FDUREL (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) and the trust subscale of the BTMGS (r = 0.26, P = 0.007).

Table 2. Correlation Between the RCI - 10, BTMGS Subscales, and the Farsi Version of the DURELa
Scales234
RCI-100.26*-0.130.75*
Trust in God subscale of BTMGS1-0.48*0.21*
Mistrust subscale of BTMGS-1-0.04
Fdurel--1

a*P values < 0.05.

5. Discussion

To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the RCI-10. The Farsi version had satisfactory internal consistency, comparable to the original English version (11). Factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution for the Farsi version of the scale. The original English version of the RCI-10, however, has been shown to have two highly correlated factors: Factor 1 consists of 6 items and has an eigenvalue of 6.20, explaining 62% of the variance, and Factor 2 is composed of 4 items and has an eigenvalue of 1.01, explaining 10.1% of the variance (11). These differences may be due to differences between the two sample groups. In the validation study of the original English version, construct validity was assessed with male and female college students and also with married Christian adults. In this study, however, all of the participants were male substance abusers who self-reported as Muslim. Further, most of our study participants had a low level of education (did not finish high school).

The following limitations should be considered in interpreting the results of this study. First, this study was conducted with a relatively small sample. Second, all the participants were male, substance abusers, and enrolled in rehabilitation programs. The results of this study thus may not be generalizable to other populations. Further studies need to be done to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Farsi version of the RCI-10.

In sum, the results of this study, while preliminary, suggest that the Farsi version of the RCI-10 is a reliable and valid measure of religiosity, suitable for use in health research with Farsi-speaking populations.

Acknowledgements

Footnotes

References

  • 1.

    Cook CC. Addiction and spirituality. Addiction. 2004; 99(5) : 539 -51 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 2.

    Galanter M. Spirituality and addiction: a research and clinical perspective. Am J Addict. 2006; 15(4) : 286 -92 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 3.

    Green LL, Fullilove MT, Fullilove RE. Stories of spiritual awakening. The nature of spirituality in recovery. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1998; 15(4) : 325 -31 [PubMed]

  • 4.

    Abelson HI, Fishburne PM, Cisin I. National survey on drug abuse, 1977-a nationwide study-youth, young adults, and older people, V 1: Main findings 1977;

  • 5.

    Clark WB, Midanik L. Alcohol use and alcohol problems among US adults: Results of the 1979 national survey. Alcohol consumption and related problems. 1982; : 3 -52

  • 6.

    Koenig H, Larson DB. Religion and mental health: Evidence for an association. Int Rev Psychiat. 2001; 13(2) : 67 -78

  • 7.

    Koenig HG. MSJAMA: religion, spirituality, and medicine: application to clinical practice. JAMA. 2000; 284(13) : 1708 [PubMed]

  • 8.

    Kendler KS, Gardner CO, Prescott CA. Religion, psychopathology, and substance use and abuse; a multimeasure, genetic-epidemiologic study. Am J Psychiatry. 1997; 154(3) : 322 -9 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 9.

    Arnold R, Avants SK, Margolin A, Marcotte D. Patient attitudes concerning the inclusion of spirituality into addiction treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2002; 23(4) : 319 -26 [PubMed]

  • 10.

    Worthington EL. Understanding the values of religious clients: A model and its application to counseling. J Counsel Psychol. 1988; 35(2) : 166

  • 11.

    Worthington EL, Wade NG, Hight TL, Ripley JS, McCullough ME, Berry JW, et al. The Religious Commitment Inventory--10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. J Counsel Psychol. 2003; 50(1) : 84

  • 12.

    Hafizi S. Addiction in iran: the need for culturally and religiously adapted preventive/ recovery programs. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2013; 2(1) : 46 -7 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 13.

    Momtazi S, Rawson R. Substance abuse among Iranian high school students. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010; 23(3) : 221 -6 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 14.

    Baheiraei A, Hamzehgardeshi Z, Mohammadi MR, Nedjat S, Mohammadi E. Alcohol and drug use prevalence and factors associated with the experience of alcohol use in Iranian adolescents. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013; 15(3) : 212 -7 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 15.

    Hafizi S, Koenig HG, Khalifa DA. Psychometric properties of the farsi version of hoge intrinsic religiosity scale in muslims: A brief report. Pastoral Psychol. 2015; 64(6) : 839 -45

  • 16.

    Koenig H, Parkerson GJ, Meador KG. Religion index for psychiatric research. Am J Psychiatry. 1997; 154(6) : 885 -6 [PubMed]

  • 17.

    Koenig HG, Büssing A. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL): a five-item measure for use in epidemological studies. Religions. 2010; 1(1) : 78 -85

  • 18.

    Hafizi S, Memari AH, Pakrah M, Mohebi F, Saghazadeh A, Koenig HG. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL): validation and reliability of the Farsi version. Psychol Rep. 2013; 112(1) : 151 -9 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 19.

    Hafizi S, Rosmarin DH, G. Koenig H. Brief trust/mistrust in god scale: Psychometric properties of the farsi version in muslims. Ment Health Relig Cult. 2014; 17(4) : 415 -20

  • COMMENTS

    LEAVE A COMMENT HERE: