International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction

Published by: Kowsar

Mobile Phone Usage and Its Effects on Pedestrians’ Distraction

Naser Alejalil 1 and Seyed Rasoul Davoodi 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, IR Iran
2 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Golestan University, Gorgan, IR Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: September 2017, 6 (3); e35431
  • Published Online: November 14, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: December 17, 2015
  • Revised: April 4, 2016
  • Accepted: November 5, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijhrba.35431

To Cite: Alejalil N, Davoodi S R. Mobile Phone Usage and Its Effects on Pedestrians’ Distraction, Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2017 ; 6(3):e35431. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.35431.

Copyright © 2016, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. All quality mobile marketing research, mobile web stats, subscribers, ad revenue, usage trends. 2011;
  • 2. ICT Data and Statistics Division Telecommunication Development Bureau International Telecommunication Uni. 2013;
  • 3. WHO . Pedestrian safety: A road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. 2013;
  • 4. Ameri M, Karimnia A. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Iran. Rahvar. 2014; 26(1)
  • 5. Bungum TJ, Day C, Henry LJ. The association of distraction and caution displayed by pedestrians at a lighted crosswalk. J Community Health. 2005; 30(4): 269-79[PubMed]
  • 6. Hatfield J, Murphy S. The effects of mobile phone use on pedestrian crossing behaviour at signalized and unsignalized intersections. Accid Anal Prev. 2007; 39(1): 197-205[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Nasar J, Hecht P, Wener R. Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety. Accid Anal Prev. 2008; 40(1): 69-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Neider MB, McCarley JS, Crowell JA, Kaczmarski H, Kramer AF. Pedestrians, vehicles, and cell phones. Accid Anal Prev. 2010; 42(2): 589-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Thompson LL, Rivara FP, Ayyagari RC, Ebel BE. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study. Inj Prev. 2013; 19(4): 232-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Sleet DA, Pollack K, Rivara F, Frattaroli S, Peek-Asa C. It wouldn't hurt to walk: promoting pedestrian injury research. Inj Prev. 2010; 16(3): 211-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Evaluating a mobile pedestrian safety application in a virtual urban environment. Proceedings of the 11th ACM SIGGRAPH International Conference on Virtual-Reality Continuum and its Applications in Industry. : 175-80
  • 12. Byington KW, Schwebel DC. Effects of mobile Internet use on college student pedestrian injury risk. Accid Anal Prev. 2013; 51: 78-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Schwebel DC, Stavrinos D, Byington KW, Davis T, O'Neal EE, de Jong D. Distraction and pedestrian safety: how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music impact crossing the street. Accid Anal Prev. 2012; 45: 266-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Strayer DL, Drews FA. Profiles in driver distraction: effects of cell phone conversations on younger and older drivers. Hum Factors. 2004; 46(4): 640-9[PubMed]
  • 15. Johnson MB, Voas RB, Lacey JH, McKnight AS, Lange JE. Living dangerously: driver distraction at high speed. Traffic Inj Prev. 2004; 5(1): 1-7[PubMed]
  • 16. Matthews R, Legg S, Charlton S. The effect of cell phone type on drivers subjective workload during concurrent driving and conversing. Accid Anal Prev. 2003; 35(4): 451-7[PubMed]
  • 17. Grant AH. Mobile cellular telephony vs. defensive safe driving. Optometry. 2000; 71(7): 415-7[PubMed]
  • 18. Langer P, Holzner B, Magnet W, Kopp M. Hands-free mobile phone conversation impairs the peripheral visual system to an extent comparable to an alcohol level of 4-5 g 100 ml. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2005; 20(1): 65-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Laberge-Nadeau C, Maag U, Bellavance F, Lapierre SD, Desjardins D, Messier S, et al. Wireless telephones and the risk of road crashes. Accid Anal Prev. 2003; 35(5): 649-60[PubMed]
  • 20. Cooper PJ, Zheng Y, Richard C, Vavrik J, Heinrichs B, Siegmund G. The impact of hands-free message reception/response on driving task performance. Accid Anal Prev. 2003; 35(1): 23-35[PubMed]
  • 21. Crundall D, Underwood G, Chapman P. Driving experience and the functional field of view. Perception. 1999; 28(9): 1075-87[PubMed]
  • 22. Hyman IE, Boss SM, Wise BM, McKenzie KE, Caggiano JM. Did you see the unicycling clown? Inattentional blindness while walking and talking on a cell phone. Appl Cogn Psychol. 2010; 24(5): 597-607
  • 23. Stavrinos D, Byington KW, Schwebel DC. Distracted walking: cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians. J Safety Res. 2011; 42(2): 101-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Nasar JL, Troyer D. Pedestrian injuries due to mobile phone use in public places. Accid Anal Prev. 2013; 57: 91-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Byrnes JP, Miller DC, Schafer WD. Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 1999; 125(3): 367
  • 26. Patten CJ, Kircher A, Ostlund J, Nilsson L. Using mobile telephones: cognitive workload and attention resource allocation. Accid Anal Prev. 2004; 36(3): 341-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Strayer DL, Johnston WA. Driven to distraction: dual-Task studies of simulated driving and conversing on a cellular telephone. Psychol Sci. 2001; 12(6): 462-6[PubMed]
  • 28. Redelmeier DA, Tibshirani RJ. Association between cellular-telephone calls and motor vehicle collisions. N Engl J Med. 1997; 336(7): 453-8[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments