International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction

Published by: Kowsar

Cigarette Smoking Based on Prototype Willingness Model in Male High School Students

Hossain Farshidi 1 , Teamur Aghamolaei 2 , Zahra Hosseini 2 , * , Amin Ghanbar Nejad 2 and Fatemeh Alsadat Hosseini 3
Authors Information
1 Cardiovascular Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran
2 Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran
3 Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, IR Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: March 2018, 7 (1); e63209
  • Published Online: November 1, 2017
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: August 27, 2016
  • Revised: December 31, 2016
  • Accepted: April 18, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijhrba.63209

To Cite: Farshidi H, Aghamolaei T, Hosseini Z, Ghanbar Nejad A, Hosseini F A. Cigarette Smoking Based on Prototype Willingness Model in Male High School Students, Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2018 ; 7(1):e63209. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.63209.

Copyright © 2017, International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Rahnavard Z, Mohammadi M, Rajabi F, Zolfaghari M. An educational intervention using health belief model on smoking preventive behavior among female teenagers. J Hayat. 2011;17(3):15-26.
  • 2. Warren CW, Lea V, Lee J, Jones NR, Asma S, McKenna M. Change in tobacco use among 13-15 year olds between 1999 and 2008: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Glob Health Promot. 2009;16(2 Suppl):38-90. doi: 10.1177/1757975909342192. [PubMed: 19770234].
  • 3. Nicklas TA, Johnson CC, Webber LS, Berenson GS. School-based programs for health-risk reduction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;817:208-24. [PubMed: 9239190].
  • 4. WHO ROFTEM. Tobacco free initiative. 2012. Available from:
  • 5. Karimy M, Niknami S, Heidarnia AR, Hajizadeh I, Montazeri A. Prevalence and determinants of male adolescents' smoking in iran: an explanation based on the theory of planned behavior. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013;15(3):187-93. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.3378. [PubMed: 23983996].
  • 6. Tavousi M, Heidarnia AR, Montazeri A, Taremian F, Akbari H, Haeri AA. Distinction between two control constructs: An application of the theory of planned behavior for substance abuse avoidance in adolescents. Green Mount Union High School J. 2009;15(4):36-45.
  • 7. Gibbons FX, Gerrard M, McCoy SB. Prototype perception predict (lack of) pregnancy prevention. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 1995;21(1):85-93.
  • 8. Gibbons FX, Gerrard M, Ouellette JA, Burzette R. Understanding and changing health behaviors: From health beliefs to self-regulation. Discriminating between behavioral intentions and behavioral willingness: Cognitive antecedents to adolescent health risk. In: Norman P, Abraham C, Conner M, editors. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Press; 2000. p. 137-61.
  • 9. Gerrard M, Gibbons FX, Reis-Bergan M, Trudeau L, Vande Lune LS, Buunk B. Inhibitory effects of drinker and nondrinker prototypes on adolescent alcohol consumption. Health Psychol. 2002;21(6):601-9. [PubMed: 12433013].
  • 10. Gerrard M, Gibbons F, Houlihan A, Stock M, Pomery E. A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. Dev Rev. 2008;28(1):29-61.
  • 11. Morowatisharifabad MA, Fadaeevash N, Allahverdipour H, Fallahzadeh H. Study of smoking predictors based on prototype/willingness model among high school students in Maragheh. J Tolooe Behdasht. 2012;11(3):25-35.
  • 12. Barati M, Allahverdipour H, Hidarnia A, Niknami S. Predicting tobacco smoking among male adolescents in Hamadan City, west of Iran in 2014: an application of the prototype willingness model. J Res Health Sci. 2015;15(2):113-8. [PubMed: 26175295].
  • 13. Hukkelberg SS, Dykstra JL. Using the Prototype/Willingness model to predict smoking behaviour among Norwegian adolescents. Addict Behav. 2009;34(3):270-6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.10.024. [PubMed: 19095361].
  • 14. Ramezankhani A, Sarbandi Zaboli F, Zarghi A, Heidari M, Masjedi M. Smoking pattern in adolecent students in Tehran. Pejouhandeh J. 2010;3(75):115-22.
  • 15. Global Youth Tobacco Survey Collaborating G. Differences in worldwide tobacco use by gender: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. J Sch Health. 2003;73(6):207-15. [PubMed: 12899101].
  • 16. Barati M. Designing and implementing preventive educational program for avoiding psychoactive drug abuse based on prototype /willingness model among college students. Hamadan university of medical sciences; 2009.
  • 17. Wills TA, Sargent JD, Knight R, Pagano I, Gibbons FX. E-cigarette use and willingness to smoke: a sample of adolescent non-smokers. Tob Control. 2016;25(e1):52-9. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052349. [PubMed: 26261237].
  • 18. Richardson A, Ganz O, Vallone D. Tobacco on the web: surveillance and characterisation of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertising. Tob Control. 2015;24(4):341-7. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051246. [PubMed: 24532710].
  • 19. Duke JC, Lee YO, Kim AE, Watson KA, Arnold KY, Nonnemaker JM, et al. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults. Pediatrics. 2014;134(1):29-36. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0269. [PubMed: 24918224].
  • 20. Barati M, Allahverdipour H, Moeini B, FarhadiNasab A, Mahjub H, Jalilian F. Assertiveness skills training efficiency on college students’ persuasive subjective norms against substance abuse. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci. 2011;18(3):40-9.
  • 21. Zhu BP, Liu M, Shelton D, Liu S, Giovino GA. Cigarette smoking and its risk factors among elementary school students in Beijing. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(3):368-75. [PubMed: 8604762].
  • 22. Dal Cin S, Worth KA, Gerrard M, Stoolmiller M, Sargent JD, Wills TA, et al. Watching and drinking: expectancies, prototypes, and friends' alcohol use mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking. Health Psychol. 2009;28(4):473-83. doi: 10.1037/a0014777. [PubMed: 19594272].
  • 23. Hammer JH, Vogel DL. Assessing the utility of the willingness/prototype model in predicting help-seeking decisions. J Couns Psychol. 2013;60(1):83-97. doi: 10.1037/a0030449. [PubMed: 23106820].
  • 24. Ajzen I. The theory of planned behaviour: reactions and reflections. Psychol Health. 2011;26(9):1113-27. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2011.613995. [PubMed: 21929476].
  • 25. Stock ML, Litt DM, Arlt V, Peterson LM, Sommerville J. The prototype/willingness model, academic versus health-risk information, and risk cognitions associated with nonmedical prescription stimulant use among college students. Br J Health Psychol. 2013;18(3):490-507. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8287.2012.02087.x. [PubMed: 23013235].
  • 26. Rivis A, Abraham C, Snook S. Understanding young and older male drivers' willingness to drive while intoxicated: the predictive utility of constructs specified by the theory of planned behaviour and the prototype willingness model. Br J Health Psychol. 2011;16(Pt 2):445-56. doi: 10.1348/135910710X522662. [PubMed: 21489069].
  • 27. Hampson SE, Andrews JA, Barckley M. Childhood predictors of adolescent marijuana use: early sensation-seeking, deviant peer affiliation, and social images. Addict Behav. 2008;33(9):1140-7. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.04.010. [PubMed: 18547739].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments