International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction

Published by: Kowsar

Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Emotion Regulation Training in Reducing Current Drug Craving and Drug-Use Thoughts and Fantasies in Opioid-Dependent Patients: The Issue of Precedence

Behzad Rigi Kooteh ORCID 1 , * , Nour-Mohammad Bakhshani ORCID 2 , ** , Masoud Nosratabadi 3 and Behrooz Dolatshahi 3
Authors Information
1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Children and Adolescents’ Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
3 Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science’s, Tehran, IR Iran
Corresponding Authors:
Article information
  • International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: June 30, 2019, 8 (2); e94499
  • Published Online: June 23, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 26, 2019
  • Revised: May 29, 2019
  • Accepted: June 12, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijhrba.94499

To Cite: Rigi Kooteh B, Bakhshani N, Nosratabadi M , Dolatshahi B. Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Emotion Regulation Training in Reducing Current Drug Craving and Drug-Use Thoughts and Fantasies in Opioid-Dependent Patients: The Issue of Precedence, Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2019 ; 8(2):e94499. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.94499.

Copyright © 2019, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Ansari-Moghaddam A, Rakhshani F, Shahraki-Sanavi F, Mohammadi M, Miri-Bonjar M, Bakhshani NM. Prevalence and patterns of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among Iranian adolescents: A meta-analysis of 58 studies. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2016;60:68-79. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.11.018.
  • 2. Hall W, Carter A. Is deep brain stimulation a prospective "cure" for addiction? F1000 Med Rep. 2011;3:4. doi: 10.3410/M3-4. [PubMed: 21399761]. [PubMed Central: PMC3042315].
  • 3. Sinha Vk D. Psychological Management of Craving. J Addict Res Ther. 2015;6(2). doi: 10.4172/2155-6105.1000230.
  • 4. Szasz PL, Szentagotai A, Hofmann SG. Effects of emotion regulation strategies on smoking craving, attentional bias, and task persistence. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50(5):333-40. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.010. [PubMed: 22459732].
  • 5. Baker TB, Piper ME, McCarthy DE, Majeskie MR, Fiore MC. Addiction motivation reformulated: An affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychol Rev. 2004;111(1):33-51. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.111.1.33. [PubMed: 14756584].
  • 6. Lupi M, Martinotti G, Santacroce R, Cinosi E, Carlucci M, Marini S, et al. Transcranial direct current stimulation in substance use disorders: A systematic review of scientific literature. J ECT. 2017;33(3):203-9. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0000000000000401. [PubMed: 28272095].
  • 7. Kalivas PW, Volkow ND. The neural basis of addiction: A pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(8):1403-13. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.8.1403. [PubMed: 16055761].
  • 8. Lefaucheur JP, Antal A, Ayache SS, Benninger DH, Brunelin J, Cogiamanian F, et al. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Clin Neurophysiol. 2017;128(1):56-92. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2016.10.087. [PubMed: 27866120].
  • 9. Zaghi S, Acar M, Hultgren B, Boggio PS, Fregni F. Noninvasive brain stimulation with low-intensity electrical currents: Putative mechanisms of action for direct and alternating current stimulation. Neuroscientist. 2010;16(3):285-307. doi: 10.1177/1073858409336227. [PubMed: 20040569].
  • 10. Yalcin BM, Unal M, Pirdal H, Karahan TF. Effects of an anger management and stress control program on smoking cessation: A randomized controlled trial. J Am Board Fam Med. 2014;27(5):645-60. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2014.05.140083. [PubMed: 25201934].
  • 11. Choi KM, Scott DT, Lim SL. The modulating effects of brain stimulation on emotion regulation and decision-making. Neuropsychiatr Electrophysiol. 2016;2(1). doi: 10.1186/s40810-016-0018-z.
  • 12. Shahbabaie A, Golesorkhi M, Zamanian B, Ebrahimpoor M, Keshvari F, Nejati V, et al. State dependent effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on methamphetamine craving. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;17(10):1591-8. doi: 10.1017/S1461145714000686. [PubMed: 24825251].
  • 13. Beadman M, Das RK, Freeman TP, Scragg P, West R, Kamboj SK. A comparison of emotion regulation strategies in response to craving cognitions: Effects on smoking behaviour, craving and affect in dependent smokers. Behav Res Ther. 2015;69:29-39. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2015.03.013. [PubMed: 25863600].
  • 14. Gross JJ, Muñoz RF. Emotion regulation and mental health. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 1995;2(2):151-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.1995.tb00036.x.
  • 15. Ahmadi G, Sohrabi F, Borjali A, Ghaderi M, Mohseni M. [Effectiveness of emotion regulation training on mindfulness and craving in soldiers with opioid use disorder]. J Mil Psychol. 2015;6(22):5-21. Persian.
  • 16. Nomandan SM, Hasani J, Hatami M. The role of emotional schemas in substance abuse craving. Int J Behav Sci. 2014;8(2):131-6.
  • 17. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Schweizer S. Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30(2):217-37. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004. [PubMed: 20015584].
  • 18. Garnefski N, Kraaij V, Spinhoven P. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Pers Individ Dif. 2001;30(8):1311-27. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(00)00113-6.
  • 19. Gross JJ. The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Rev Gen Psychol. 1998;2(3):271-99. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271.
  • 20. McHugh RK, Hearon BA, Otto MW. Cognitive behavioral therapy for substance use disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010;33(3):511-25. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.012. [PubMed: 20599130]. [PubMed Central: PMC2897895].
  • 21. Powers A, Madan A, Hilbert M, Reeves ST, George M, Nash MR, et al. Effects of combining a brief cognitive intervention with transcranial direct current stimulation on pain tolerance: A randomized controlled pilot study. Pain Med. 2018;19(4):677-85. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnx098. [PubMed: 28460127].
  • 22. Stanton MD, Todd TC. The family therapy of drug abuse and addiction. Guilford Press; 1982.
  • 23. Williams H, Johnston B. Factors related to treatment retention in a methadone maintenance program. Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Methadone Treatment. New York. National Association for the Prevention of Addiction to Narcotics; 1972.
  • 24. McLellan AT, Luborsky L, Woody GE, O'Brien CP. An improved diagnostic evaluation instrument for substance abuse patients. The addiction severity index. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1980;168(1):26-33. [PubMed: 7351540].
  • 25. Kleinman P, Lukoff I. Methadone maintenance-modest help for a few. New York: Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, US Department of Justice; 1975.
  • 26. Johnson RE, Jaffe JH, Fudala PJ. A controlled trial of buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. JAMA. 1992;267(20):2750-5. doi: 10.1001/jama.267.20.2750. [PubMed: 1578593].
  • 27. Franken IH, Hendriksa VM, van den Brink W. Initial validation of two opiate craving questionnaires the obsessive compulsive drug use scale and the desires for drug questionnaire. Addict Behav. 2002;27(5):675-85. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00201-5. [PubMed: 12201376].
  • 28. Ziaee SS, Fadardi JS, Cox WM, Yazdi SA. Effects of attention control training on drug abusers' attentional bias and treatment outcome. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2016;84(10):861-73. doi: 10.1037/a0040290. [PubMed: 27281374].
  • 29. Carvalho S, Sampaio A, Mendes AJ, Lema A, Vieira D, Goncalves OF, et al. Polarity specific effects of cross-hemispheric tDCS coupled with approach-avoidance training on chocolate craving. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:1500. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01500. [PubMed: 30733678]. [PubMed Central: PMC6353830].
  • 30. Witkiewitz K, Stein ER, Votaw VR, Wilson AD, Roos CR, Gallegos SJ, et al. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention and transcranial direct current stimulation to reduce heavy drinking: A double-blind sham-controlled randomized trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2019;43(6):1296-307. doi: 10.1111/acer.14053. [PubMed: 30977904]. [PubMed Central: PMC6551269].
  • 31. Conti CL, Moscon JA, Fregni F, Nitsche MA, Nakamura-Palacios EM. Cognitive related electrophysiological changes induced by non-invasive cortical electrical stimulation in crack-cocaine addiction. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;17(9):1465-75. doi: 10.1017/S1461145714000522. [PubMed: 24776374].
  • 32. Nazari MA, Hashemi T, Yassini SM, Mirhosseini H. [Determining the relationship of the Relapse rate and None invasive electrical brain stimulation following ultra rapid opioid detoxification (UROD) method]. Anesthesiol Pain. 2016;6(4):56-65. Persian.
  • 33. Bakhshani NM, Lashkaripour K, Sadjadi SA. A randomized effectiveness trial of methadone, TENS and methadone plus TENS in management of opiate withdrawal symptoms. J Pak Med Assoc. 2008;58(12):667-71. [PubMed: 19157318].
  • 34. Hoseiny H, Jadidi M, Habiballah Nataj L, Saberi-Zafarghandi MB. The effect of methadone-maintenance therapy with and without interactive treatment on improving emotion-regulation strategies and resilience among opiate-dependent clients. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2015;4(1). e23526. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.23526. [PubMed: 25821751]. [PubMed Central: PMC4360543].
  • 35. Fortney S. A jurisprudential analysis of government intervention and prenatal drug abuse. J Law Health. 2002;17(1):11-35. [PubMed: 15453254].
  • 36. Borrell-Carrio F, Suchman AL, Epstein RM. The biopsychosocial model 25 years later: Principles, practice, and scientific inquiry. Ann Fam Med. 2004;2(6):576-82. doi: 10.1370/afm.245. [PubMed: 15576544]. [PubMed Central: PMC1466742].
  • 37. Ekhtiari H, Bashir S. Brain stimulation technology in addiction medicine main problems waiting for solutions. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2010;1(4):3-4.
  • 38. Alba-Ferrara L, Fernandez F, Salas R, de Erausquin GA. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Addict Disord Their Treat. 2014;13(4):159-69. doi: 10.1097/ADT.0b013e31829cf047. [PubMed: 25598743]. [PubMed Central: PMC4292849].
  • 39. Mami S, Amirian K. [The effect of cognitive-behavioral therapies in treatment of addicts in Iran by systematic review and meta-analysis method]. Qom Univ Med Sci J. 2017;10(12):24-34. Persian.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments