Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and High Risk Behaviors

AUTHORS

Nour-Mohammad Bakhshani ORCID 1 , *

1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran

How to Cite: Bakhshani N. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and High Risk Behaviors, Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2013 ; 2(1):1-2. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.12817.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: 2 (1); 1-2
Published Online: June 26, 2013
Article Type: Editorial
Received: June 16, 2013
Revised: June 16, 2013
Accepted: June 16, 2013
Crossmark

Crossmark

CHEKING

READ FULL TEXT

Keywords

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Risk Behavior

Copyright © 2013, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

High risk behaviors (HRBs) can impact public health. HRB refers to any kind of behavior or reaction that can potentially harm psychological and biological aspects of an individual. These behaviors are hazardous to several areas of human development which include: health, performing duties or tasks commensurate with developmental stage, playing expected social roles, learning the skills, feeling competent and adequate, and preparation for doing tasks (1). Prevalence and correlates of HRBs vary in different population groups. One of the ‘at-risk’ groups is people with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Almost hundred years ago, ADHD was described as a childhood disorder (especially in boys) called hyperactivity. Nearly six decades later, the "minimal brain damage" and "minimal brain dysfunction" were replaced with hyperactivity. With the introduction of attention deficit as the central feature of this disorder, a significant change occurred in the approaches of etiology and diagnosis of ADHD (2). Currently ADHD is diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Introducing diagnostic criteria and subtypes of ADHD (inattentive, hyperactive and combined subtypes) by APA (3), increased the convergence diagnosis and provided more appropriate frameworks for the studies on ADHD. The prevalence of ADHD is estimated at about 8-13% (4). Approximately 70% of children diagnosed with ADHD have the symptoms in adolescence (5), and a high percentage of these symptoms continue into adulthood (6). The prevalence of ADHD in adults is reported about 4.5% (7, 8).

People with ADHD, suffer from social and interpersonal problems. Inattention and hyperactive/impulsive behavior can cause social problems in this population (9), thus, People with ADHD suffer from more social and interpersonal problems. Compared with impulsive group, inattentive group is associated with less aggressive behaviors, conduct disorder and oppositional defiant behavior (10). Tobacco and drug usage (11), and smoking (12), are more common among children and adolescents with ADHD. The age of onset of smoking in people with ADHD is lower than those without a diagnosis of ADHD (13). In addition, there is a relationship between ADHD and high-risk driving (14). A study on 18-26 years old people with ADHD and without ADHD has shown that men with ADHD symptoms in childhood have experienced sexual activity and intercourse at a younger age and had more sexual partners (15), accident and adverse consequences of driving (14, 16).

Symptoms of ADHD, in general, and its comorbidity with other disorders (e.g. depression, phobias, substance abuse, and dysthymia) can increase probability of performing HRBs, but these are not the only determinants of high risk behaviors. Overall, ADHD patients have major problems in decision-making, executive functioning and social cognition. Their decision-making in ambiguous situations has the same features of "intuitive-existential" decision-making system (17). Also, the consequences of the decisions are not processed, and not applied in their decision- making. Additionally, people with ADHD are concerned with the anticipated reward of risk-seeking behavior and prefer these aspects (18). They also suffer from impairments in executive functions so their "rational-analytical system" is also disrupted. Some executive functions may be impaired in ADHD such as "response inhibition", "working memory", "set shifting" and" interference control" (18).

In a review of the studies done over a period of 30 years by Uekermann et al. found that ADHD is associated with deficit in social cognition (e.g., face perception, emotional prosody perception (19). Deficit in social cognition on one hand increases the probability of HRBs and on the other causes the reduced effects of treatment, particularly on depression and alcoholism, these disorders have high comorbidity with ADHD (20).

Although our understanding of ADHD and its association with HRBs has increased by the conducted research, there are still questions and issues regarding to hereditary, neuropsychological, developmental, environmental, psychological, social factors of ADHD which should be studied further. Some of the major issues in this regard are listed below.

1- The interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the development of ADHD.

2- The development of brain networks and circuits associated with ADHD symptoms, impaired executive functions and social cognition of people with ADHD.

3- Deficits in executive function as a general capacity and also its components and how executive functions relate to HRBs in children and adults.

4- Studying the effectiveness of drug treatments and psycho-social interventions on executive functions and improving the deficit of social cognition depending on ADHD subtypes and developmental stage of the patients.

5- Impact of parenting styles and cultural-social factors on development and maintenance of ADHD symptoms with HRBs, and the impact of ADHD on parental behaviors.

6- The role and influence of different situations and emotional states in decision-making of people with ADHD.

Footnotes

References

  • 1.

    Risk and protection in successful outcomes among disadvantaged adolescents. Appl Dev Sci. 1998; 2(4) : 194 -208

  • 2.

    Bidwell LC, McClernon FJ, Kollins SH. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011; 99(2) : 262 -74 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 3.

    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 2000;

  • 4.

    Valera EM, Faraone SV, Murray KE, Seidman LJ. Meta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 61(12) : 1361 -9 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 5.

    Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone S, Hammerness P, Surman C, Harpold T, et al. A double-blind comparison of galantamine hydrogen bromide and placebo in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006; 26(2) : 163 -6 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 6.

    Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Bessler A, Malloy P, LaPadula M. Adult outcome of hyperactive boys. Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50(7) : 565 -76 [PubMed]

  • 7.

    Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, Biederman J, Conners CK, Demler O, et al. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(4) : 716 -23 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 8.

    Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Epstein JN, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Kahn RS. Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007; 161(9) : 857 -64 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 9.

    Nijmeijer JS, Minderaa RB, Buitelaar JK, Mulligan A, Hartman CA, Hoekstra PJ. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning. Clin Psychol Rev. 2008; 28(4) : 692 -708 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 10.

    Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, Chhabildas NA, Friedman MC, Alexander J. Psychiatric comorbidity associated with DSM-IV ADHD in a nonreferred sample of twins. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999; 38(11) : 1355 -62 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 11.

    Mannuzza S, Klein RG. Long-term prognosis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2000; 9(3) : 711 -26 [PubMed]

  • 12.

    Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Chen L, Jones J. ADHD is associated with early initiation of cigarette smoking in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997; 36(1) : 37 -44 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 13.

    Riggs PD, Mikulich SK, Whitmore EA, Crowley TJ. Relationship of ADHD, depression, and non-tobacco substance use disorders to nicotine dependence in substance-dependent delinquents. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1999; 54(3) : 195 -205 [PubMed]

  • 14.

    Barkley RA, Cox D. A review of driving risks and impairments associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the effects of stimulant medication on driving performance. J Safety Res. 2007; 38(1) : 113 -28 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 15.

    Flory K, Molina BS, Pelham WE, Jr, Gnagy E, Smith B. Childhood ADHD predicts risky sexual behavior in young adulthood. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2006; 35(4) : 571 -7 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 16.

    Rosenbloom T, Wultz B. Thirty-day self-reported risky driving behaviors of ADHD and non-ADHD drivers. Accid Anal Prev. 2011; 43(1) : 128 -33 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 17.

    Toplak ME, Connors L, Shuster J, Knezevic B, Parks S. Review of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and neural-based interventions for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Clin Psychol Rev. 2008; 28(5) : 801 -23 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 18.

    Willcutt EG, Doyle AE, Nigg JT, Faraone SV, Pennington BF. Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 57(11) : 1336 -46 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 19.

    Uekermann J, Kraemer M, Abdel-Hamid M, Schimmelmann BG, Hebebrand J, Daum I, et al. Social cognition in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010; 34(5) : 734 -43 [DOI][PubMed]

  • 20.

    Daviss WB. A review of co-morbid depression in pediatric ADHD: etiology, phenomenology, and treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2008; 18(6) : 565 -71 [DOI][PubMed]

  • COMMENTS

    LEAVE A COMMENT HERE: